2023年4月3日 星期一



112/02/09 開始剪枝           112/03/11施肥
 2023/3/28 留芽、防治螞蟻用硼砂加糖水
112/03/22留芽             112/03/28 硼砂加糖水防治螞蟻



2023年4月2日 星期日

Pruning Fig Trees | Heavy Pruning for Production and Size

How and Why to Prune Fig Trees

Fig Tree Diseases

Fig Rust Causes And Fig Rust Treatment: In Ground VS Container Figs

Fig Mosaic Virus: Is it a Problem!?

Common Problems with Fig Trees in the Early Spring when given a Headstart

Danger! watch this before your fig tree dies! Dangerous Pests for your f...

2022年3月25日 星期五

柏拉圖無花果愛好者Che figo! (lit. What a fig!) - So cool!



Che figo! (lit. What a fig!) - So cool!

A first love is never forgotten: the fig is believed to be the oldest cultivated fruit in the Mediterranean area and has left evidence of its importance in art, culture and religion since the dawn of time. Just to give a few examples: in the Old Testament it was synonymous with wealth and abundance, for the ancient Egyptians it was a symbol of the victory over death, ancient Greeks attributed its birth to the god Dionysus and considered its fruits “worthy of nourishing orators and philosophers”. Plato was so fond of figs that he was nicknamed “fig eater” and advised his young students to eat plenty of them because, he said, “they boost intelligence”. In addition to being rich in sugar, they contain high levels of calcium, iron and potassium, phosphorus and vitamins, and have good antioxidant, energizing and anti-inflammatory properties.

A city founded on figs

Their sweetness and virtues did not fail to seduce the ancient Romans who over time spread their cultivation throughout the Italian peninsula and the whole Empire. After all, the fig tree was also connected to the foundation of Rome: legend has it that near a wild fig – the Ficus Ruminalis – the floating trough with Romulus and Remus came to rest and beneath the fig the she-wolf suckled and fed the twins. According to historians, after the demise of the old tree on the Palatine’s slopes another fig sprouted spontaneously in the Forum: the plant was considered a good omen and the fate of the city depended on its state of health, which explains why it was promptly replaced as soon as it dried up... And always under a fig tree the feasts of Juno Caprotina were celebrated on 7 July, an ancient all-female solemnity attended by handmaids and free women.

Fatal figs

Tender and utterly seductive, figs have won hearts but have also started wars: because of them Rome’s historical rival Carthage was destroyed. In the second century BC, “Carthago delenda est”, “Carthage must be destroyed” was the admonition constantly repeated by Marcus Porcius Cato, otherwise known as Cato the Censor, convinced that the Romans should never come to terms with their age-old enemy. Too dangerous and, above all, too close. A proof thereof? A basket of fresh figs coming straight from Carthage, exhibited as a powerful tool of persuasion to all the senators who were reluctant to a military intervention. But figs are also linked to the death of Cleopatra, the Egyptian queen famous in history as the lover of Julius Caesar and later of Marcus Anthony. Cleopatra loved figs so much that she wanted the asp with which she killed herself to be hidden among their leaves. At least according to what Plutarch says... Lastly, rumors had it that Augustus was killed with a poisoned fig that his wife Livia gave him.

In art and cuisine

Today, the varieties of figs run into the hundreds but Pliny already listed 29 of them, including the purple and extra sweet “Black Brogiotto”, the pot-bellied protagonist of many Renaissance still lifes. A basket filled with magnificent ripe green and black figs is shown in a famous fresco from Poppea’s Villa at Oplontis: since ancient times, figs inspired artists and food lovers alike. Suitable for young and old, and, according to Pliny, even able to reduce wrinkles, they accompanied desserts and cheeses, or were flavored with salt, vinegar and garum, a fish sauce. By boiling them, Romans produced the so-called “fig honey”, precious for sweetening food. Ancient recipes also include the special dried fig loin (to be pounded with feet) by Columella and the “iecur ficatum” by Apicius, the most famous gastronome in ancient Rome. This was a delicacy based on the liver of animals fattened with figs, and it was so fashionable that it also influenced the dictionary: not from “iecur” but from “ficatum” comes the word “fegato”, the Italian for “liver”.

How much is a dried fig worth

The fresh fig is a rare commodity that you can only get in the summer and early fall – with a smaller harvest in June, and a larger harvest from July to September. In order to preserve and eat fig fruits throughout the year, people soon learned to dry them: many dried figs have been found, for example, in the Herculaneum archeological site, stored in clay or glass containers. Ovid says dried figs, dates and honey were offered on New Year’s Eve to friends and relatives as a wish for the new year. But the Roman Empire itself was built on figs: Tacitus, in his Annales, explains that legionaries were paid with a handful of salt (hence the name salary) and dried figs, which were very useful in military campaigns since they are so nutrient dense. An old soldier, unable to defend Rome, was “not worth a dried fig”, an expression used still today to indicate someone or something that has no use.

Noble and popular

Emperor Augustus ate them with cheese and fish, Gallienus offered them in his sumptuous banquets but figs, plentiful and easily grown, were appreciated by less well-to-do classes due to their energetic properties, were included in the meals granted to slaves and have been a staple of farmers’ diets for centuries, so much so that they were called the bread of the poor. So, at the time of Emperor Diocletian, the cheapest product on the market was a paste obtained by pounding and mixing with aromatic herbs figs left to dry in the sun. Today, figs color and give flavor to every type of dish and continue to play a leading role, both in gourmet recipes and in simple yet sublime traditional dishes that the Romans still love: pizza and figs or prosciutto and figs.





Iliad 5. 899-909
ὣς φάτο, καὶ Παιήον᾽ ἀνώγειν ἰήσασθαι.
τῷ δ᾽ ἐπὶ Παιήων ὀδυνήφατα φάρμακα πάσσων
ἠκέσατ᾽: οὐ μὲν γάρ τι καταθνητός γ᾽ ἐτέτυκτο.
ὡς δ᾽ ὅτ᾽ ὀπὸς γάλα λευκὸν ἐπειγόμενος συνέπηξεν
ὑγρὸν ἐόνμάλα δ᾽ ὦκα περιτρέφεται κυκόωντι,
ὣς ἄρα καρπαλίμως ἰήσατο θοῦρον Ἄρηα.
τὸν δ᾽ Ἥβη λοῦσεν, χαρίεντα δὲ εἵματα ἕσσε:
πὰρ δὲ Διὶ Κρονίωνι καθέζετο κύδεϊ γαίων.
αἳ δ᾽ αὖτις πρὸς δῶμα Διὸς μεγάλοιο νέοντο
Ἥρη τ᾽ Ἀργείη καὶ Ἀλαλκομενηῒς Ἀθήνη
παύσασαι βροτολοιγὸν Ἄρη᾽ ἀνδροκτασιάων.

He spoke, and commanded Paeeon to heal his hurt;
and Paeeon spread on it herbs that slay pain, and healed him;
for he was not at all of mortal mold.
Just as the juice of the fig speedily makes to grow thick the white milk that is liquid,
and it is quickly curdled as a man stirs it, so swiftly he healed furious Ares.
And Hebe bathed him, and clad him in beautiful clothes, and he sat down by the side of Zeus,
son of Cronos, exulting his glory.
Then back to the halls of great Zeus went Argive Hera
and Alaclomenean Athene, when they had made Ares,
the bane of mortals, cease from his man-slaying.
l  戰神Ares受傷了Ares是神,不會死喔宙斯一方面責備愛惹禍端的Ares,一方面還是請Paeeon (Paean, Paieon, Παιήον)幫他療傷。Paeeon (Paean, Paieon, Παιήον)有時候就是指Apollo
l  一般都只提Paean用藥草,英文譯本中提到無花果(fig),但希臘原文中並沒有說白色的植物漿汁來自無花果樹。會如此直接翻譯是因為ὀπός: juice,在古希臘常常就是指野生無花果漿汁,可當凝乳酵素---"the acid juice of the wild fig that was used as a rennet for curdling milk" (Kirk, p.153)
l  ὀπός: juice
l  γάλα: milky sap of plants
l  λευκός light, bright, white
l  ἐπείγω press by weight
l  ὑγρός wet, moist, fluid
l  περιτρέφομαι forms curds
l  κυκάω stir
下面資料與圖片出處(維基百科): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_fig
common fig (Ficus carica): Drawing of the common fig foliage and fruit

ἐρινεός wild fig-tree
Ficus Caprificus, Ficus carica
Iliad 6. 429-439
Ἕκτορ ἀτὰρ σύ μοί ἐσσι πατὴρ καὶ πότνια μήτηρ
ἠδὲ κασίγνητος, σὺ δέ μοι θαλερὸς παρακοίτης:
ἀλλ᾽ ἄγε νῦν ἐλέαιρε καὶ αὐτοῦ μίμν᾽ ἐπὶ πύργῳ,
μὴ παῖδ᾽ ὀρφανικὸν θήῃς χήρην τε γυναῖκα:
λαὸν δὲ στῆσον παρ᾽ ἐρινεόν, ἔνθα μάλιστα
ἀμβατός ἐστι πόλις καὶ ἐπίδρομον ἔπλετο τεῖχος.
τρὶς γὰρ τῇ γ᾽ ἐλθόντες ἐπειρήσανθ᾽ οἱ ἄριστοι
ἀμφ᾽ Αἴαντε δύω καὶ ἀγακλυτὸν Ἰδομενῆα
ἠδ᾽ ἀμφ᾽ Ἀτρεΐδας καὶ Τυδέος ἄλκιμον υἱόν:
ἤ πού τίς σφιν ἔνισπε θεοπροπίων ἐῢ εἰδώς,
ἤ νυ καὶ αὐτῶν θυμὸς ἐποτρύνει καὶ ἀνώγει.
Hector, you are to me father and queenly mother, you are brother,
and you are my vigorous husband.
Come now, have pity, and stay here on the wall,
lest you make your son fatherless and your wife a widow.
And as for your army, station it by the wild fig tree,
where the city may best scaled, and the wall is open to assault.
For thrice at this point came the best men in company with the two
Aiantes and glorious Idomeneus and the sons of Atreus
and the valiant son of Tydeus, and tried the walls:
either someone well skilled in soothsaying told them,
or perhaps their own heart urges and commands them to it.

l  Iliad 6. 369-466,敘述丈夫與妻子的對話,在戰事吃緊,而且生死關頭,面對不安恐懼的妻小,Hector還是得捨下家人,捨下安逸的生活,為了保衛社稷,忍心闊別特洛伊的一切。
l  Andromache看透,"My dear husband, your warlike spirit will be your death." 一語道破英雄的悲劇下場。
l  Andromache害怕丈夫一去不回,希望他留在安全的城牆之內。
l  Andromache提到Hector的戰術,從無花果樹邊攻上城垣。這策略只有三人曾經嘗試: HectorAiantesIdomeneus這段文字似乎與上下文不合,基本上Andromache想說服Hector不要出戰,根據 Kirk的註釋,這裡所說的不實: "they contain an untruth; for it was not recorded that the wall was easy to attack in this sector, nor it the fighting so close to the wall" (p.217)。是因為Andromache不了解情況?還是詩人吟唱時忘了上下文情節的一致?
l  ἐρινεός wild fig-tree, Ficus Caprificus = Ficus caricaIliad 11.167, 22.145會再提到無花果樹。如Iliad 5. 692-3提到的橡樹,無花果樹位於特洛伊城牆附近一定點,但實際位置不可考。Iliad 11.166-168描述特洛伊軍隊全軍潰堤,從Ilos墳場撤退到此無花果樹下,Iliad 22.145也提到Achilles追殺 Hector,穿過此無花果樹。從這幾處,可以看見,無花果樹像是特洛伊的守護者,保護特洛伊人,提供休息之處,也見證Hector悲壯一生。
l  此外,Andromache的父親也死於Achilles的武力下,而Hector也即將斷送生命在Achilles的手下,實在很難不恨這位追求名聲,卻害的許多家庭破碎的英雄!


l  柏拉圖(Plato)也取了個綽號"philosikos" (lover of figs),愛無花果者。
l  Athenaeus (14. 651)整章討論無花果乾果。一說,希臘人曾贈無花果給波斯王 Xerxes,實在太美味,導致這位波斯王一心想攻打這塊孕育美味無花果的土地。

l  Herodotus 還專論無花果樹複雜的授粉過程。

2022年3月23日 星期三









4、果實成熟前大水大肥。 果實生長發育期可葉面噴施嘉美腦白金,以增大果個,提高產量。











在無花果的露地栽培粗放,成樹無須特別管理,枝葉生長旺盛可自然形成大樹冠,但結果晚而少,往往秋果未熟天氣已經轉涼,有產無收。所以要需及時摘心,不要使其繼續延伸,以利枝條下部結的果實早熟和二次果成熟,摘心的時間、數量及果實的留量均須適度,既要有利當年結果,還要有利來年樹的生長和結果。 摘心能抑制新梢生長,減少枝條長度,促進萌芽分枝,增加大枝或骨幹枝基部的分枝。因此新梢旺長時期摘心可促生二次枝,有利於擴大樹冠,幼樹多用。此外,爲了促進當年新梢生長成熟充實,可在新梢緩慢生長期摘心,可促進花芽分化,有利於果實提早成熟,並能提高單果重。摘心時期一般在7月中旬至8月上旬爲宜。並剪掉不結果的枝條,果子快成熟時及時擇除下部葉片,增加陽光和使營養集中供給無花果。