2022年3月25日 星期五

柏拉圖無花果愛好者Che figo! (lit. What a fig!) - So cool!



Che figo! (lit. What a fig!) - So cool!

A first love is never forgotten: the fig is believed to be the oldest cultivated fruit in the Mediterranean area and has left evidence of its importance in art, culture and religion since the dawn of time. Just to give a few examples: in the Old Testament it was synonymous with wealth and abundance, for the ancient Egyptians it was a symbol of the victory over death, ancient Greeks attributed its birth to the god Dionysus and considered its fruits “worthy of nourishing orators and philosophers”. Plato was so fond of figs that he was nicknamed “fig eater” and advised his young students to eat plenty of them because, he said, “they boost intelligence”. In addition to being rich in sugar, they contain high levels of calcium, iron and potassium, phosphorus and vitamins, and have good antioxidant, energizing and anti-inflammatory properties.

A city founded on figs

Their sweetness and virtues did not fail to seduce the ancient Romans who over time spread their cultivation throughout the Italian peninsula and the whole Empire. After all, the fig tree was also connected to the foundation of Rome: legend has it that near a wild fig – the Ficus Ruminalis – the floating trough with Romulus and Remus came to rest and beneath the fig the she-wolf suckled and fed the twins. According to historians, after the demise of the old tree on the Palatine’s slopes another fig sprouted spontaneously in the Forum: the plant was considered a good omen and the fate of the city depended on its state of health, which explains why it was promptly replaced as soon as it dried up... And always under a fig tree the feasts of Juno Caprotina were celebrated on 7 July, an ancient all-female solemnity attended by handmaids and free women.

Fatal figs

Tender and utterly seductive, figs have won hearts but have also started wars: because of them Rome’s historical rival Carthage was destroyed. In the second century BC, “Carthago delenda est”, “Carthage must be destroyed” was the admonition constantly repeated by Marcus Porcius Cato, otherwise known as Cato the Censor, convinced that the Romans should never come to terms with their age-old enemy. Too dangerous and, above all, too close. A proof thereof? A basket of fresh figs coming straight from Carthage, exhibited as a powerful tool of persuasion to all the senators who were reluctant to a military intervention. But figs are also linked to the death of Cleopatra, the Egyptian queen famous in history as the lover of Julius Caesar and later of Marcus Anthony. Cleopatra loved figs so much that she wanted the asp with which she killed herself to be hidden among their leaves. At least according to what Plutarch says... Lastly, rumors had it that Augustus was killed with a poisoned fig that his wife Livia gave him.

In art and cuisine

Today, the varieties of figs run into the hundreds but Pliny already listed 29 of them, including the purple and extra sweet “Black Brogiotto”, the pot-bellied protagonist of many Renaissance still lifes. A basket filled with magnificent ripe green and black figs is shown in a famous fresco from Poppea’s Villa at Oplontis: since ancient times, figs inspired artists and food lovers alike. Suitable for young and old, and, according to Pliny, even able to reduce wrinkles, they accompanied desserts and cheeses, or were flavored with salt, vinegar and garum, a fish sauce. By boiling them, Romans produced the so-called “fig honey”, precious for sweetening food. Ancient recipes also include the special dried fig loin (to be pounded with feet) by Columella and the “iecur ficatum” by Apicius, the most famous gastronome in ancient Rome. This was a delicacy based on the liver of animals fattened with figs, and it was so fashionable that it also influenced the dictionary: not from “iecur” but from “ficatum” comes the word “fegato”, the Italian for “liver”.

How much is a dried fig worth

The fresh fig is a rare commodity that you can only get in the summer and early fall – with a smaller harvest in June, and a larger harvest from July to September. In order to preserve and eat fig fruits throughout the year, people soon learned to dry them: many dried figs have been found, for example, in the Herculaneum archeological site, stored in clay or glass containers. Ovid says dried figs, dates and honey were offered on New Year’s Eve to friends and relatives as a wish for the new year. But the Roman Empire itself was built on figs: Tacitus, in his Annales, explains that legionaries were paid with a handful of salt (hence the name salary) and dried figs, which were very useful in military campaigns since they are so nutrient dense. An old soldier, unable to defend Rome, was “not worth a dried fig”, an expression used still today to indicate someone or something that has no use.

Noble and popular

Emperor Augustus ate them with cheese and fish, Gallienus offered them in his sumptuous banquets but figs, plentiful and easily grown, were appreciated by less well-to-do classes due to their energetic properties, were included in the meals granted to slaves and have been a staple of farmers’ diets for centuries, so much so that they were called the bread of the poor. So, at the time of Emperor Diocletian, the cheapest product on the market was a paste obtained by pounding and mixing with aromatic herbs figs left to dry in the sun. Today, figs color and give flavor to every type of dish and continue to play a leading role, both in gourmet recipes and in simple yet sublime traditional dishes that the Romans still love: pizza and figs or prosciutto and figs.





Iliad 5. 899-909
ὣς φάτο, καὶ Παιήον᾽ ἀνώγειν ἰήσασθαι.
τῷ δ᾽ ἐπὶ Παιήων ὀδυνήφατα φάρμακα πάσσων
ἠκέσατ᾽: οὐ μὲν γάρ τι καταθνητός γ᾽ ἐτέτυκτο.
ὡς δ᾽ ὅτ᾽ ὀπὸς γάλα λευκὸν ἐπειγόμενος συνέπηξεν
ὑγρὸν ἐόνμάλα δ᾽ ὦκα περιτρέφεται κυκόωντι,
ὣς ἄρα καρπαλίμως ἰήσατο θοῦρον Ἄρηα.
τὸν δ᾽ Ἥβη λοῦσεν, χαρίεντα δὲ εἵματα ἕσσε:
πὰρ δὲ Διὶ Κρονίωνι καθέζετο κύδεϊ γαίων.
αἳ δ᾽ αὖτις πρὸς δῶμα Διὸς μεγάλοιο νέοντο
Ἥρη τ᾽ Ἀργείη καὶ Ἀλαλκομενηῒς Ἀθήνη
παύσασαι βροτολοιγὸν Ἄρη᾽ ἀνδροκτασιάων.

He spoke, and commanded Paeeon to heal his hurt;
and Paeeon spread on it herbs that slay pain, and healed him;
for he was not at all of mortal mold.
Just as the juice of the fig speedily makes to grow thick the white milk that is liquid,
and it is quickly curdled as a man stirs it, so swiftly he healed furious Ares.
And Hebe bathed him, and clad him in beautiful clothes, and he sat down by the side of Zeus,
son of Cronos, exulting his glory.
Then back to the halls of great Zeus went Argive Hera
and Alaclomenean Athene, when they had made Ares,
the bane of mortals, cease from his man-slaying.
l  戰神Ares受傷了Ares是神,不會死喔宙斯一方面責備愛惹禍端的Ares,一方面還是請Paeeon (Paean, Paieon, Παιήον)幫他療傷。Paeeon (Paean, Paieon, Παιήον)有時候就是指Apollo
l  一般都只提Paean用藥草,英文譯本中提到無花果(fig),但希臘原文中並沒有說白色的植物漿汁來自無花果樹。會如此直接翻譯是因為ὀπός: juice,在古希臘常常就是指野生無花果漿汁,可當凝乳酵素---"the acid juice of the wild fig that was used as a rennet for curdling milk" (Kirk, p.153)
l  ὀπός: juice
l  γάλα: milky sap of plants
l  λευκός light, bright, white
l  ἐπείγω press by weight
l  ὑγρός wet, moist, fluid
l  περιτρέφομαι forms curds
l  κυκάω stir
下面資料與圖片出處(維基百科): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_fig
common fig (Ficus carica): Drawing of the common fig foliage and fruit

ἐρινεός wild fig-tree
Ficus Caprificus, Ficus carica
Iliad 6. 429-439
Ἕκτορ ἀτὰρ σύ μοί ἐσσι πατὴρ καὶ πότνια μήτηρ
ἠδὲ κασίγνητος, σὺ δέ μοι θαλερὸς παρακοίτης:
ἀλλ᾽ ἄγε νῦν ἐλέαιρε καὶ αὐτοῦ μίμν᾽ ἐπὶ πύργῳ,
μὴ παῖδ᾽ ὀρφανικὸν θήῃς χήρην τε γυναῖκα:
λαὸν δὲ στῆσον παρ᾽ ἐρινεόν, ἔνθα μάλιστα
ἀμβατός ἐστι πόλις καὶ ἐπίδρομον ἔπλετο τεῖχος.
τρὶς γὰρ τῇ γ᾽ ἐλθόντες ἐπειρήσανθ᾽ οἱ ἄριστοι
ἀμφ᾽ Αἴαντε δύω καὶ ἀγακλυτὸν Ἰδομενῆα
ἠδ᾽ ἀμφ᾽ Ἀτρεΐδας καὶ Τυδέος ἄλκιμον υἱόν:
ἤ πού τίς σφιν ἔνισπε θεοπροπίων ἐῢ εἰδώς,
ἤ νυ καὶ αὐτῶν θυμὸς ἐποτρύνει καὶ ἀνώγει.
Hector, you are to me father and queenly mother, you are brother,
and you are my vigorous husband.
Come now, have pity, and stay here on the wall,
lest you make your son fatherless and your wife a widow.
And as for your army, station it by the wild fig tree,
where the city may best scaled, and the wall is open to assault.
For thrice at this point came the best men in company with the two
Aiantes and glorious Idomeneus and the sons of Atreus
and the valiant son of Tydeus, and tried the walls:
either someone well skilled in soothsaying told them,
or perhaps their own heart urges and commands them to it.

l  Iliad 6. 369-466,敘述丈夫與妻子的對話,在戰事吃緊,而且生死關頭,面對不安恐懼的妻小,Hector還是得捨下家人,捨下安逸的生活,為了保衛社稷,忍心闊別特洛伊的一切。
l  Andromache看透,"My dear husband, your warlike spirit will be your death." 一語道破英雄的悲劇下場。
l  Andromache害怕丈夫一去不回,希望他留在安全的城牆之內。
l  Andromache提到Hector的戰術,從無花果樹邊攻上城垣。這策略只有三人曾經嘗試: HectorAiantesIdomeneus這段文字似乎與上下文不合,基本上Andromache想說服Hector不要出戰,根據 Kirk的註釋,這裡所說的不實: "they contain an untruth; for it was not recorded that the wall was easy to attack in this sector, nor it the fighting so close to the wall" (p.217)。是因為Andromache不了解情況?還是詩人吟唱時忘了上下文情節的一致?
l  ἐρινεός wild fig-tree, Ficus Caprificus = Ficus caricaIliad 11.167, 22.145會再提到無花果樹。如Iliad 5. 692-3提到的橡樹,無花果樹位於特洛伊城牆附近一定點,但實際位置不可考。Iliad 11.166-168描述特洛伊軍隊全軍潰堤,從Ilos墳場撤退到此無花果樹下,Iliad 22.145也提到Achilles追殺 Hector,穿過此無花果樹。從這幾處,可以看見,無花果樹像是特洛伊的守護者,保護特洛伊人,提供休息之處,也見證Hector悲壯一生。
l  此外,Andromache的父親也死於Achilles的武力下,而Hector也即將斷送生命在Achilles的手下,實在很難不恨這位追求名聲,卻害的許多家庭破碎的英雄!


l  柏拉圖(Plato)也取了個綽號"philosikos" (lover of figs),愛無花果者。
l  Athenaeus (14. 651)整章討論無花果乾果。一說,希臘人曾贈無花果給波斯王 Xerxes,實在太美味,導致這位波斯王一心想攻打這塊孕育美味無花果的土地。

l  Herodotus 還專論無花果樹複雜的授粉過程。

2022年3月23日 星期三









4、果實成熟前大水大肥。 果實生長發育期可葉面噴施嘉美腦白金,以增大果個,提高產量。











在無花果的露地栽培粗放,成樹無須特別管理,枝葉生長旺盛可自然形成大樹冠,但結果晚而少,往往秋果未熟天氣已經轉涼,有產無收。所以要需及時摘心,不要使其繼續延伸,以利枝條下部結的果實早熟和二次果成熟,摘心的時間、數量及果實的留量均須適度,既要有利當年結果,還要有利來年樹的生長和結果。 摘心能抑制新梢生長,減少枝條長度,促進萌芽分枝,增加大枝或骨幹枝基部的分枝。因此新梢旺長時期摘心可促生二次枝,有利於擴大樹冠,幼樹多用。此外,爲了促進當年新梢生長成熟充實,可在新梢緩慢生長期摘心,可促進花芽分化,有利於果實提早成熟,並能提高單果重。摘心時期一般在7月中旬至8月上旬爲宜。並剪掉不結果的枝條,果子快成熟時及時擇除下部葉片,增加陽光和使營養集中供給無花果。




2022年3月10日 星期四




台南區農業改良場 張錦興‧張汶肇


  無花果(Ficus carica L.)為桑科(Moraceae)無花果屬(Ficus)植物。隱頭花序(hypanthodium)是本屬植物最重要的特徵,因小花著生於一個膨大中空的花托內,稱之為隱頭果(syconium),是本屬在桑科中與其他屬最大的差別。無花果屬亞熱帶落葉小喬木,原產於阿拉伯、小亞細亞及地中海沿岸等地,栽培歷史已超過5千多年,因外觀見果不見花而得名,又有映日果、優曇鉢、阿駔、底珍樹、蜜果等名。無花果雖早在19世紀末即已引進台灣地區種植,但現今經濟栽培的面積不大,多數為零星或趣味栽培。



  無花果花芽分化所需的低溫需求並不嚴苛,在台灣隨著技條生長一年四季皆可開花。枝條肉質而扭曲,易下垂與腐敗。在適宜氣候下,任其自由生長,高度可達8~12公尺,樹冠直徑可達10公尺左右,樹齡可長達40~70年。無花果的葉及枝條有細毛密布,葉長約10~20公分,呈心臟形,三裂或五裂,具3~5主脈,葉柄細長,表面粗糙。無花果之花序屬於隱頭花序,依品種特性可分四大類,即卡普利系(the Capri fig)、斯密爾那系(the Smyrna fig)、山貝卓系(the San Pedro fig)與普通系(the common fig)。其中以普通系為全雌花不用授粉較適合台灣種植,其它三大類結果必須依靠無花果蜂(Blastophaga psenes)授粉(無花果與此蜂形成共生)。果實由總花托和其他花器膨大而成,呈倒卵形至梨形,成熟時呈暗紫色,由頂端開裂,果肉質柔軟味甜,略帶微酸。無花果的果實著生新梢的葉腋,即在枝梢抽出第4節的腋芽起即可連續結果,故隨著枝條成長而連續結果。但台灣冬季(12~2月)氣溫低時(尤其是寒流來臨時),新生小花易因低溫影響而發育不良,在果實發育的12~18周後,故於4月下旬至6月是無花果產量最少的時期。主要盛產期為冬季至春季,品質亦以此時最佳。














營養師帶你認識「生命之果」無花果 護心、養顏又抗癌 營養師帶你認識「生命之果」無花果 護心、養顏又抗癌 - Heho健康 https://heho.com.tw/archives/145864

 營養師帶你認識「生命之果」無花果 護心、養顏又抗癌

營養師帶你認識「生命之果」無花果 護心、養顏又抗癌 - Heho健康

無花果真的沒有花嗎?被譽為「生命之果」的無花果是世界上最古老的果樹之一,傳說亞當和夏娃在偷嚐禁果之後,就是拿無花果之葉來當遮羞布!可惜的是大家對無花果並不熟悉,就跟它的名字一樣讓人感到神秘。你知道嗎?無花果的營養價值高,含大量的纖維和多酚類,洗淨後連皮一起吃,除了口感特別之外,還有很多功效,讓 Heho 營養師宜庭來說給你聽! 無花果小檔案:我們吃的就是花! 無花果並不是沒有花,我們吃的整顆無花果,就是一個大花托中包裹著許許多多的小花!也就是說,我們所吃的無花果,吃的不是果實,而是它的花托、花朵和花蜜,學術上稱為「隱頭花序」。無花果成熟之後,肉厚而柔軟,甜蜜多汁,可以整顆直接連皮吃、切片吃、泡茶喝,或是製作成果乾都很受歡迎。但因為新鮮的無花果非常不易保存(畢竟它是花而不是果),若製作成果乾成本又難跟進口貨競爭,因此台灣種植的並不多,市場上也是最近才偶爾會看到。 無花果營養美味功效多 抗氧化 無花果含有大量的多酚類化合物,包含類黃酮和花青素,具有強大的抗氧化能力有助於消除體內的自由基,有保護心血管及養顏美容。 抗癌 無花果中除了剛才提到的抗氧化物,還有微量元素「硒」,可以透過抑制正常細胞突變和抑制癌細胞的血管增生,達到抗癌的效果。另外,其中的多醣體也被證實可以透過增加樹突狀細胞的免疫能力,達到抗腫瘤的效果。 抗發炎 無花果中含多種有機酸,含檸檬酸、延胡索酸、琥珀酸、蘋果酸及草酸等物質,具有抗炎消腫的功效。在中醫中,無花果的果實功能主治為「用於咳喘,咽喉腫痛」。若咽喉發炎及乾癢,可以用乾燥的無花果泡茶,有助緩解。 改善便祕及痔瘡 無花果中含大量的果膠,屬於水溶性纖維,透過高吸水性使糞便軟化,容易排出。除此之外,無花果還有較高量的脂類,可以潤腸通便。而其中的草酸鹽,適量攝取可以解便秘,若食用過多會刺激腸胃道黏膜,可能造成腹瀉。 以下四種人要注意食用 1. 腎臟病患者:無花果鉀含量高,每百克含 898 毫克鉀離子,腎臟病患者須謹慎食用。 2. 腸胃功能不佳者:無花果中的植物含量高,尤其是未完全成熟的果子,對腸胃的刺激較大,可能造成腸胃不適。因有輕瀉功能,腹瀉者也不宜食用。 3. 花粉過敏者:前面有提到,無花果的果實內包含無花果的花蕊,因此也含有較高量的花粉,容易過敏者要避免攝取喔! 4. 肥胖及糖尿病患者:雖然無花果的萃取物有助於降血壓,但不論是新鮮或乾燥的無花果都含高量糖分,需嚴格控糖者應該避免喔! 文/吳宜庭 圖/巫俊郡 參考資料 Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013:974256. doi: 10.1155/2013/974256. Int J Mol Sci. 2014 Jul; 15(7): 12469–12479. doi: 10.3390/ijms150712469

營養師帶你認識「生命之果」無花果 護心、養顏又抗癌 - Heho健康












原則1. 控制每次吃的份量









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2. Deepa P, Sowndhararajan K, Kim S, Park SJ. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018 Apr 6;215:210-232. A role of Ficus species in the management of diabetes mellitus: A review.

3. Stephen Irudayaraj S, Christudas S, Antony S, Duraipandiyan V, Naif Abdullah AD, Ignacimuthu S. Pharm Biol. 2017 Dec;55(1):1074-1081. Protective effects of Ficus carica leaves on glucose and lipids levels, carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and β-cells in type 2 diabetic rats.